"There often is little or no actual pumpkin in (industrially produced pumpkin flavors). ... Instead, manufacturers opt for the in-your-face potent spices in pumpkin pie: cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves ..."
— Michael Moss in his New York Times "What's In It" column addressing the huge increase in sales of pumpkin-flavored foods (pumpkin M&Ms, pumpkin-spice lattes) and their holiday popularity. Manufacturers use as many as 80 ingredients, many of them spice oils, to approximate the flavors associated with pumpkin pie.